Palladium

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Palladium

Palladium is similar to other elements of the platinum group, it is a silver metal that is relatively non-reactive, but of the group has the lowest melting point and is the least dense. In its applications it is more similar to platinum: useful in the metallic form for the production of a variety of products and as a catalyst.

Palladium catalyzes reactions involved in oil breakdown, water treatment, nitric acid production and polymer fabrication, and is found in catalytic converters and fuel cells as a catalyst.

It is also used to increase the rate of hydrogenation and dehydrogenation reactions, and serves many catalytic functions specialized in organic chemistry.

Description:

Symbol: Pd

Atomic number: 46

Atomic weight: 106.42

Element Category: transition metal

Group, period, block: 10, 5, d

Color: silver metallic white / silver-white

Other names: Palladio

Physical properties

Melting point: 1554.9, 2830.82, 1828.05 K

Boiling point: 2963, 5365, 3236 K

Density: 12.023 g · cm 3

Bulk Density: 10.38 g · cm 3

Density @ 20 ° C: 12.02 g / cm 3

Solid density: 12023 kg · m 3

Specific heat: 0.24 (kJ / kg K)

Triple Point: 1825 K, 3,5 × 10 3 kPa

Heat of Melting (kJ · mol -1): 17.2

Heat of Vaporization (kJ · mol -1): 361.5

Heat of Atomization (kJ · mol -1): 377.4

Thermal conductivity: 71.8 W · m? 1 · K? 1

Thermal expansion: (25 ° C) 11.8 μm · m -1 · K -1

Electrical resistivity: (20 ° C) 105.4 n · m

Molar heat capacity: 25.98 J · mol -1 · K -1

Young's modulus: GPa of 121

Shear modulus: 44 GPa

Bulk module: GPa 180

Poisson ratio: 0.39

Hardness of Mohs: 4.75

Vickers Hardness: 461 MPa

Brinell Hardness: 310 MPa

Sound velocity: (20 ° C) 3070 m · s -1

Pauling's electronegativity: 2.2

Allred Rochow Eletronegativity: 1,35

Pauling Electropositivity: 1.8

Reflectivity (%): 72

Chemical properties

Electrons: 46

Protons: 46

Neutron: 60

Electronic configuration: [Kr] 4d 10

Atomic radius: 137 pm

Atomic radius, unbound (Å): 2.1

Covalent Ray: 139 ± 18:00

Covalent Radius (Å): 1.3

Van der Waals Radius: 163 pm

Oxidation states: 0, +1, +2, +4, +6 (slightly basic oxide)

Solid state

Crystal structure: centered on the cubic face

Magnetic ordering: paramagnetic

Electronic affinity (kJ · mol -1) 54,206

1st ionization energy: 520,23 kJ · mol -1

2nd ionization energy: 7298,22 kJ · mol -1

3rd ionization energy: 11815.13 kJ · mol -1

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